Blender depends on many libraries. The complete list and the versions in official releases can be found in the Blender repository:
Windows and macOS precompiled libraries are stored in an SVN repository, and automatically downloaded when running make update. Blender builds with these libraries are portable and can be run on other computers.
Building library dependencies on these platforms is normally only done by platform maintainers.
For Linux Intel and AMD x86-64 systems there are also precompiled libraries.
On Linux, the system package manager can also be used to install many dependencies. See the Linux build instructions for details.
The resulting builds will not be portable, but libraries can be shared with other software on the system.
The Blender repository has a CMake based system to build all library dependencies from source. This is the system used to generate precompiled libraries for Windows, macOS and Linux.
The make deps command performs the cmake setup and build. It is mainly used by platform maintainers and is not tested to work on many different operating system installs. A successful build may require some manual configuration or edits to the code. Minimal instructions on how to use it are here: