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Referência para Glossário de Malhas


A

  • Action
  • Action Actuator - The action actuator provides an interface for controlling action playback in the game engine. Action actuators can only be created on armature objects.
  • Action Window
  • Active - Blender makes a distinction between selected and active. Only one Object or item can be active at any given time, for example to allow visualization of data in buttons. To be active, an object must have been selected while in Object mode. When in Edit mode, only an active object can be edited. If several objects are simultaneously selected while in Object mode, only the last one selected will be active in Edit mode. If no object is selected in Object mode when switching to Edit mode, the object that was active when last in Edit mode will still be active. The active object in a scene when in Edit mode is highlighted.
  • AC3D - software for building 3-Dimensional digital models and to texture them (UVmapping). It is relatively inexpensive. It has its own file format (.ac) which Blender can import and export.
  • Actuator - A LogicBrick that acts like a muscle of a lifeform. It can move the object, or also make a sound.
  • Add - A menu item on the User Preferences header. It contains 11 classes of primitive objects. Submenus contain the members of the classes. By clicking on its name in the menu, a primitive is added to a scene at the position of the 3D Cursor. If in Object mode, the insertion is independent of other objects in the scene. If inserted in Edit mode, a primitive is added to the active object of the scene, even if they are not in proximity to each other, and the resulting single object is wholly active -- and will continue to be whenever the object is selected before entering Edit mode.
  • AI - Computer programs developed to mimic human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, problem-solving, and making decisions. Artificial intelligence programs enable computers to perform tasks such as playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, etc.
  • Align
  • Alpha Channel - Additional channel in 2D image for transparency. In a image element which stores a color for each pixel, an additional value is stored in the alpha channel containing a value between 0 and 1. A value of 0 means that the pixel does not have any coverage information; i.e. there was no color contribution from any geometry because the geometry did not overlap this pixel. A value of 1 means that the pixel is fully opaque because the geometry completely overlapped the pixel.
  • ALT
  • ALT-SPACE
  • Ambient Light - Is light that doesn't seem to come from a specific source, but is just there. Look under the desk - it's pretty dark, but there's some light there. In the real world, this is caused by stray photons bouncing around and occasionally ricocheting under the desk. Ambient light is basic, minimal amount of light in the whole scene. Adding too much ambient light makes a scene look washed out. Since the light doesn't come from anywhere, all sides of an object are illuminated equally, and it won't have any shading on it.
  • Ambient Occlusion (AO) - A ratio of how much ambient light a surface point would be likely to receive. It simulates a huge dome light surrounding the entire scene. If a a surface point is under a foot or table, it will end up much darker than the top of someone's head or the tabletop.
  • Animation Buttons - Sub-context of the Scene context (F10) where one can set the start and end frames of an animation, slow it down or accelerate its tempo, set the frame rate, force Blender's 3D view playback to be in sync with with the frame rate, even if it must drop frames. Useful for pacing the animation to the audio.
  • Animation - Simulation of motion. Blender can output video animations as well as real time animations.
  • Append - Full copy in a host .blend file of one or more datablocks taken in another .blend file.
  • Architectural Design - Using Blender 3D to design architecture (including houses and similar constructions). See Architecture.
  • Armature - A single-member class of primitive object. Its primary use is in development of animated, articulated objects.
  • Area - Traditionally an area in Blender is any sub-window, like the 3D view, the text editor, the IPO window. Very few people use that term nowadays.
  • Arrow
  • Automerge - editing mode working with Snap-tool. It removes the doubles when you snap 2 vertices.
  • Autostart - Top Menu 0> Game -> Autostart
  • Axis - A reference line. 1) The geometry of Blender's world is defined by 3 orthogonal axes, x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. They are shown as red, green, and blue lines, respectively, in the 3D Viewport. Their mutual intersection defines the position of the origin of the global coordinate system in Blender. In this Cartesian-derived system, a 3D position is defined in terms of its offset from these axes. 2) Each object (or simultaneously selected set of objects) has its own, local axes that are orthogonal to each other and to the sides of the object's bounding box. Local axes are invisible. If toggled on, the Transform Manipulator resides on the operational center of the object, and its arrows by default parallel the global axes. However, a Local mode can be selected from the Transform Orientation combo box on the 3D Viewport header. When in this mode, provided that any rotation of the object has occurred while in Object mode, the arrows of the Transform Manipulator will coincide with the local axes of the object. While in this mode, again providing that any rotations have been made in Object mode, manipulations in either Object of Edit mode will occur with respect to local object axes. 3) A set of small axes in the lower left corner of the 3D Viewport acts as an orientation monitor. Its arrows always parallel global axes, regardless of view and even in free-roaming view. The arrow heads point in the positive direction along each global axis.

B

  • Background
  • Bevel
  • Bézier surfaces were first described in 1972 by the French engineer Pierre Bézier who used them to design automobile bodies. Bézier surfaces can be of any degree, but bicubic Bézier surfaces generally provide enough degrees of freedom for most applications.
  • Blender Documentation
  • Blender File
  • Blender Foundation (BF)
  • Blender Game Engine (BGE)
  • Blend - to Blend, working with Blender; also Blender's file extension (.blend).
  • Bone
  • Bounce Light: Simple lighting situations have a single light, called a key light, illuminating one side of an object. This creates strong shading and definition of the volume of the object. However, a 3D light will often make the contrast too great - the dark side of the object is completely black since no light is hitting it. In reality it would still be lit a little, just not as much as the brightly lit side, because of light bouncing around the room and hitting the dark side of the object. In realtime 3D, bounce light is not calculated, so you have to create it yourself. Either add a little ambient color, or put a second, less bright directional light pointing the opposite direction to give a little light to the shadows.
  • Bounding Box determines the geometric centers and axes for all objects, including those of complex shape (joined objects, boolean unions, etc). All Blender objects may be seen as representative bounding boxes by selecting Bounding Box drawing mode in the Viewport Shading combo box on the 3D Viewport header bar --- hotkey Z toggles bounding box and solid drawing modes. Bounding boxes can only be viewed in Object Mode.
  • Buffer
  • Bump mapping is a technique where at each pixel, a perturbation to the surface normal of the object being rendered is looked up in a texture map and applied before the illumination calculation is done. Bump Mapping use a gray-scale image map to change the direction of surface normals. You can use this to simulate height, so that you can paint wrinkles and bumps. 50 % grey means neutral (no change is made), lighter means higher, darker means lower. Note that the position of faces is not actually changed; by rotating just the normals, lighting will change too, to give the illusion of a height difference. This has downsides too: the outline of objects isn't changed, so the trick is given away. For similar effects you can use Displacement Mapping and Normal Mapping.
  • Buttons Window

C

  • Cal3D
  • Camera
  • Cancel
  • Caustics in optics is a bundle of light rays. For example a caustic effect may be seen when light refracts or reflects through some refractive or reflective material, to create a more focused, stronger light on the final location. Such amplification, especially of sunlight, can burn -- hence the name. A common situation when caustics are visible is when some light points on glass. There is a shadow behind the glass, but also there is a stronger light spot. Nowadays, almost every advanced rendering system supports caustics. Some of them even support volumetric caustics. This is accomplished by raytracing the possible paths of the light beam through the glass, accounting for the refraction, reflection, etc.

  • Center. Blender has center associated with:

Universal HotKeys

  • HOME. All Objects in the visible layer are displayed completely, centered in the window.

Object Mode HotKeys

  • CKEY. Centre View. The position of the 3DCursor becomes the new centre of the 3DWindow.
  • SHIFT-C. CentreZero View. The 3DCursor is set to zero (0,0,0) and the view is changed so that all Objects, including the 3Dcursor, can be displayed. This is an alternative for HOME.

Object Center

  • Geometric Center. An object's geometric center coincides with the geometric center of its bounding box.
  • Operational Center. The reference point for manipulation of an object. It may be offset from an object's geometric center both spatially and angularly. The operational center moves and rotates in Object mode, but not in Edit mode. A spatial offset is achieved in Object mode by using the Object|Transform menu to transfer the operational center of an object to the position of the 3D Cursor. Many operations in Edit mode involve spatial offset of the operational center - from simply pulling a face to one side to moving a wholly-selected object. The Object|Transform menu allows resetting the operational center to the geometric center or vice versa. Angular offset occurs in Edit mode when rotating a whole object. Rotation of the object will occur, but the attitude of the center does not change. After an angular offset, Local mode selected from the Transform Orientation combo box does not reflect an object's local axis directions, which means probably unexpected results while either translating or scaling the object in Local mode.



  • Channel
  • Circle is an initially 2D member of the mesh class of primitives. When adding this primitive, any number of vertices greater than 2 may be specified. So, any regular polygon from a triangle to, effectively, a circle may be added to a scene, faces formed if wanted, and then extruded. Primary use of a circle is probably as a cross-section that can, through vertex manipulation, be made into any shape for extrusion.
  • Clear
  • COLLADA
  • Compositing
  • Compression
  • Cone is a 3D primitive belonging to the mesh class of objects. When adding this primitive, the user can choose any number of vertices (at the base) greater than 2, so its cross-section can vary from triangular (a tetrahedron object) to, effectively, circular (near true cone object). Its default height from base to point of the cone is 2 Blender Units, and its default "diameter" is nominally 2 Blender Units. How close it gets to that base diameter is dependent on the cross-section. This object is a closed object, with faces all around its circumference and across its base.
  • Constraint. In the theory of constraints, it is any factor that limits the performance of a system with respect to its goal.

To take a simple example: a chain has 5 links, each link capable of holding a maximum weight of 5, 7, 4, 8 and 6 tonnes respectively. The maximum weight the chain can hold is clearly 4 tonnes – the limit imposed by the weakest link. In this case, all 5 links have limits to their strength, but the 3rd link is the constraint because it is the greatest restriction on the system.

  • Controller A LogicBrick that acts like the brain of a lifeform. It makes decisions to activate muscles (Actuators), either using simple logic or complex Python scripts.
  • Copy
  • Counter
  • Create
  • Cursor
  • CTRL.
  • CTRL-LMB.
  • CTRL-SPACE.
  • Cube is a primitive object belonging to the mesh class. It is a closed object with 6 faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices. It is the default object that appears at the center of the opening 3D viewport screen when Blender is first started or when File|New is chosen.
  • Curve is a class of objects. There are five primitives in the class: 1) Bezier curve, 2) Bezier circle, 3) NURBS curve, 4) NURBS circle, and 5) Path. These seemingly simple primitives can be used to produce objects of complex shape, such as a helical tube of almost any cross-section shape or an extruded shape, like an embossed logo. Any object derived from the primitives is a curve object unless or until it is converted to an object of the mesh class. If not converted, it cannot interact with objects of the mesh class in such as boolean operations.
  • Cylinder is a primitive object belonging to the mesh class. It is a closed object with faces around its circumference and at each end. When the user adds it to a scene, the number of vertices on the cylinder's circumference is specified by the user - a cylinder's cross-section can vary from triangular through a near-perfect circle.

D

  • 3D Window
  • Data Block
  • Data View
  • Deactivate
  • Debug
  • DEC Object Fole Format
  • Deformation
  • Delete
  • Depth of Field (DOF) is the distance in front of and behind the subject which appears to be in focus. For any given lens setting, there is only one distance at which a subject is precisely in focus, but focus falls off gradually on either side of that distance, so there is a region in which the blurring is tolerable. This region is greater behind the point of focus than it is in front, as the angle of the light rays change more rapidly; they approach being parallel with increasing distance.
  • Diffuse Light is even, directed light coming off a surface. For most things, the diffuse light is the main lighting we see. Diffuse light comes from a specific direction or location, and creates shading. Surfaces facing towards the light source will be brighter, while surfaces facing away from the light source will be darker.
  • Directional Light is a light that has a specific direction, but no location. It seems to come from an infinitely far away source, like the sun. Surfaces facing the light are illuminated more than surfaces facing away, but their location doesn't matter. A Directional Light illuminates all objects in the scene, no matter where they are.
  • Directory
  • DirectX
  • Displacement Mapping uses a greyscale heightmap, like Bump Mapping, but the image is used to physically move the vertices of the mesh at render time. This is of course only useful if the mesh has large amounts of vertices, but the (relatively) new "Simple Subdiv" subsurf option allows you to add more vertices at render time which will be moved by the displacement. This makes it much slower than Bump Mapping, as there need to be many more faces to render, but it is much more realistic.
  • Display
  • Display Buttons
  • Distributed Computing (DC)
  • Doppler effect The Doppler effect is the change in pitch that occurs when a sound has a velocity relative to the listener. When a sound moves towards the listener the pitch will rise. When going away from the listener the pitch will drop. A well known example is the sound of an car passing by.
  • Double Buffer Blender uses two buffers (images) to draw the interface in. The content of one buffer is displayed, while drawing occurs on the other buffer. When drawing is complete, the buffers are switched.
  • Draw
  • Draw Key
  • Drawing Exchange Format
  • Drawing Speed
  • Dump Subwindow
  • Dump Screen
  • Duplicate
  • DXF

E

  • Edit
  • Edit Mode The mode for making intra-object graphical changes. Blender has two modes for making changes graphically. EditMode allows intra-object changes (moving, scaling rotating, deleting, and other operations on selected vertices of the active object). By contrast, ObjectMode allows inter-object changes (operations on selected objects).
Switch between EditMode and ObjectMode with Hotkey: TAB.
  • Elipsoid
  • Empty. Blender have Empty associated with:
Environment Map, Armature, Helper Object

  • Enable
  • Engine

  • Environment Map (EnvMap) is the method of calculating reflections. Involved rendering images at strategic positions and applying them as textures to the mirror. Now in most cases obsoleted by Raytracing, which though slower is easier to use and more accurate.
Blender have Environment Map associated with: Texture Mapping.

  • Erase
  • ESC
  • Export
  • Extrude

F

  • Field Rendering
  • File
  • File Format
  • File Window
  • Filter
  • Flip
  • Focal Length of a lens is the distance along the optical axis from the lens to the focus (or focal point). The inverse of a lens' focal length is called its power.
  • Focus of a lens is the point onto which collimated light parallel to the axis is focused.
  • Frame
  • Framerate
  • Fresnel Lens is a type of lens invented by Augustin-Jean Fresnel. Originally developed for lighthouses, the design enables the construction of lenses of large size and short focal length without the weight and volume of material which would be required in a lens of conventional design.
  • Frustum

G

  • Game
  • Game Engine (GE)
  • Gimp
  • Global Illumination (GI) is a superset of radiosity and ray tracing. The goal is to compute all possible light interactions in a given scene, and thus obtain a truely photorealistic image. All combinations of diffuse and specular reflections and transmissions must be accounted for. Effects such as colour bleeding and caustics must be included in a global illumination simulation.
  • Graphic Library
  • Grid
  • Gouraud shading is a method used in computer graphics to simulate the differing effects of light and colour across the surface of an object. In practice, Gouraud shading is used to achieve smooth lighting on low-polygon surfaces without the heavy computational requirements of calculating lighting for each pixel. The technique was first presented by Henri Gouraud in 1971.
  • Group

H

  • Helper Object
  • Hemi
  • High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) is a set of techniques that allow a far greater dynamic range of exposures than normal digital imaging techniques. The intention is to accurately represent the wide range of intensity levels found in real scenes, ranging from direct sunlight to the deepest shadows. The use of high dynamic range imaging in computer graphics has been popularised by the work of Paul Debevec. Blender use Yafray for this techniques.
  • Hook
  • HotKeys

I

  • IcoSphere
  • Index Of Refraction (IOR) is about the way that light passes through different types of materials... diamond, glass, water etc. When a light ray travels through the same volume it follows a straight path. However if it passes from one transparent volume to another, it bends. This is why a straw in water looks bent. The amount of bending differs between materials. The angle by which the ray is bent can be determined by knowing two things: the angle at which the incoming ray has been cast and the Index of Refraction. This IOR value is unique for every material. Glass has an IOR of about 1.5 and water 1.3. By increasing the IOR value for a Blender material, you can control how much the environment behind the transparent object is distorted, and thus improving the realism of the shader.
  • Information
  • Inkscape
  • Insert Key Menu
  • Interface
  • Interpolation (IPO) is an animation curve. Objects can be animated in many ways. They can be animated as Objects, changing their position, orientation or size in time; they can be animated by deforming them; that is animating their vertices or control points; or they can be animated via very complex and flexible interaction with a special kind of object: the Armature.
  • Inverse Kinematics (IK) is the process of determining the movement of interconnected segments of a body or model. Using ordinary Kinematics on a hierarchically structured object you can for example move the shoulder of a puppet. The upper and lower arm and hand will automatically follow that movement. IK will allow you to move the hand and let the lower and upper arm go along with the movement. Without IK the hand would come off the model and would move independently in space. Blender Armature Sistem include Inverse Kinematics.
  • Image Window
  • Image Select
  • Import
  • IPO Window

J

  • Join
  • JPEG (pronounced jay-peg) is a commonly used standard method of lossy compression for photographic images. The file format which employs this compression is commonly also called JPEG; the most common file extensions for this format are .jpeg, .jfif, .jpg, .JPG, or .JPE although .jpg is the most common on all platforms.

K

  • Key
  • Keyboard
  • Keyframe is a frame in an animated sequence of frames that was drawn or otherwise constructed directly by the user. When all frames were drawn by animators, the senior artist would draw these frames, leaving the "in between" frames to an apprentice. Now, the animator creates only the first and last frames of a simple sequence; the computer fills in the gap. This is called tweening.

L

  • Lamp
  • Lasso
  • Lattice
  • Layer A visibility flag for Objects, Scenes and 3DWindows.
  • Lens
  • Library
  • Library Data
  • Light
  • LightWave
  • Link
  • LMB Left Mouse Button; click LMB or click and drag LMB works as in other applications to select from menus and tool bars, move objects, drag box outlines, etc. However, an accidental click on LMB while traversing it over the 3D viewport can inadvertently invoke the Gestures option (see the section of that name in the User Manual Chapter on Interaction in 3D) for initializing a manipulation. This may result in unwanted changes in objects or elements of objects in position, angle, or scale. If this happens, cancel the manipulation by clicking RMB or use Ctrl-Z after clicking LMB.
  • Logic
  • Logic Brick A graphical representation of a functional unit in Blender's game logic. LogicBricks can be Sensors, Controllers or Actuators.
  • Luminosity (more properly called luminance) is the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. In astronomy, luminosity is the amount of energy a body radiates per unit time. It is typically expressed in the SI units watts, in the cgs units ergs per second, or in terms of solar luminosities, Ls; that is, how many times more energy the object radiates than the Sun, whose luminosity is 3.827×1026 W.

M

  • MacOSX
  • Manipulator is short for 3D Transform Manipulator. The manipulator takes 3 distinct forms depending on the type of manipulation to be applied - translation, rotation, and scaling.
  • Map
  • Mapping. Blender has 'Mappingassociated with:
Bump Mapping, Displacement Mapping, Environment Map, Nabla, Normal Mapping, Texture Mapping and UV Mapping.
  • MD2
  • Memory
  • Mesh is a class of Blender objects. It has 10 primitive members: 1) Plane, 2) Cube, 3) Circle, 4) UVSphere, 5) IcoSphere, 6) Cylinder, 7) Tube, 8) Cone, 9) Grid, and 10) Monkey. This is an important class in development of 3D models in Blender. Its name derives from the network of vertices, edges, and faces that surround a mesh-class object; each of these elements can be manipulated to transform a simple primitive shape into something very complex. Furthermore, several operations, such as boolean can combine mesh-class shapes for even greater complexity.
  • Meta
  • Mirror
  • MMB is the acronym for the middle button of a 3-button mouse. Pressing MMB while moving the mouse rotates the 3D viewport scene so that the user can view oblique scenes. A 2-button mouse emulates a 3-button mouse by pressing Alt>LMB, where LMB is the left mouse button.
  • Modeling is the process of manipulating and combining simple primitive shapes into representations of real or imaginary "things" - animals, people, machinery, vegetation, scenery, etc. Models may be assembled and arranged in Blender's 3D viewport as scenes, or may be exported under a number of common file formats for use in other 3D programs.
  • Motion Blur is the simulation of the phenomenon that occurs when we perceive a rapidly moving object. The object appears to be blurred because of our persistence of vision. Doing motion blur makes computer animation appear more realistic. It can be thought of as adding back some of the time dependence expressed in the Rendering Equation.
  • Material
  • Monkey A form of primate that managed to invade Blender by the help of a man named Willem-Paul Van Overbruggen. This 500 face primitive is used in Blender much the same way as the Utah Teapot is used in other 3d applications.
  • Mipmap
  • Motion Capture
  • Mouse refers mainly to the standard hand-held mouse used with most computer programs. Blender was designed around a 3-button mouse, but a 2-button mouse can be accommodated. Mouse pads and buttons can also be accommodated.
  • Movie

N

  • Nabla. Ton wrote: Almost all procedural textures in Blender use derivatives for calculating normals for texture mapping (with as exception "Blend" and "Magic). The texture normal, the derivative, is calculated by using four samples in the texture formula:
 s0= texture(x, y, z)
 s1= texture(x+nabla, y, z)
 s2= texture(x, y+nabla, z)
 s3= texture(x, y, z+nabla)
 
 normal[0]= s0-s1
 normal[1]= s0-s2
 normal[2]= s0-s3

Up to now, the "nabla" offset was a constant (0.025) which worked fine in most cases, but doesn't give proper control over the way a texture is sampled, for example to make the effect smoother or sharper. This feature especially is useful in combination with the ColorBand feature.

  • Name
  • Nendo
  • Node
  • '
  • Non-Linear Animation (NLA) allows the animator to edit motions as a whole, not just the individual keys. Nonlinear animation is not just about editing and manipulating groups of keyframes, but it also allows you to combine, mix, and blend motions to create entirely new animations.
  • Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) is a computer graphics technique for generating and representing curves and surfaces.
  • Normal, surface normal, or just normal to a flat surface is a three-dimensional vector which is perpendicular to that surface. A normal to a non-flat surface at a point p on the surface is a vector which is perpendicular to the tangent plane to that surface at p.
  • Normal Mapping is similar to Bump Mapping, but instead of the image being a greyscale heightmap, the colours define in which direction the normal should be shifted, the 3 colour channels being mapped to the 3 directions X, Y and Z. This allows more detail and control over the effect.
  • Numeric Mode

O

  • Object
  • Object Key
  • Ogre
  • Open
  • OpenFlight
  • Open Last
  • Open Movie
  • Operating System
  • Orange is first Blender open movie project.
  • Outliner Window
  • Oversampling (OSA), also called Anti-Aliasing is the technique of minimizing aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. In most cases, anti-aliasing means removing data at too high a frequency to represent. When such data is left in a signal, it causes unpredictable artifacts.

P

  • Pack Data
  • Paint
  • Parent
  • Particles
  • Path
  • Phong shading term is used indiscriminately to describe both an illumination model and an interpolation method in 3D computer graphics. Phong reflection is a local illumination model and can produce a certain degree of realism in three-dimensional objects by combining three elements - diffuse, specular and ambient for each considered point on a surface. It has several assumptions - all lights are points, only surface geometry is considered, only local modelling of diffuse and specular, specular colour is the same as light colour, ambient is a global constant.
  • Paste
  • Picture
  • Pin Icon
  • Pivot
  • Plane
  • Play
  • Play Mode
  • Playback
  • Plugin
  • PLY
  • Point Light is a light that has a specific location and radiates equally out in all directions. Examples of point lights would be candles or bare lightbulbs. Surfaces close to the point light are brighter than those which are far away. Point lights have attenuation, which controls how quickly the light intensity drops off as you move away from it. Lights with high attenuation are very localized, while lights with low attenuation will spread farther.
  • Polygonization (of meta-surfaces) is the process of approximating the meta-surface via polygons so it can be displayed/rendered in Blender.
  • Pose Mode
  • Pro Engineer
  • Profil
  • Properties
  • Physics
  • Puntuation
  • Purple runs as a normal Verse client. It implements a node database to mirror the contents of its host. It loads the plug-ins, which reside in libraries, from local disk as DLLs or shared objects depending on the platform.
  • Python

Q

  • Quit
  • Quit Blender

R

  • Radiosity is a more accurate but also more process-intensive technique than raytracing, that calculates patterns of light and shadow for rendering graphics images from three-dimensional models. One of the many different tools which can simulate diffuse lighting in Blender.
  • Raw Triangle
  • Raytracing works by tracing the path taken by a ray of light through the scene, and calculating reflection, refraction, or absorption of the ray whenever it intersects an object in the world. More accurate than Scanline, but much slower.
  • Record
  • Recover Last Session
  • Refraction in geometric optics is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in velocity. It happens when waves travel from a medium with a given refractive index to a medium with another. At the boundary between the media the wave changes direction; its wavelength increases or decreases but frequency remains constant. For example, a light ray will refract as it enters and leaves glass.
  • Relative Vertex Keys (RVK) are part of a keyframe animation system that operates on vertex level objects. Each key is stored as a morph target such that several keys may be blended together to achieve complex mesh animation. With RVK you can create facial expressions, speech, and other detailed animated keyframed movements within your mesh-based models.
  • Rename
  • Render
  • Render Window
  • Rest Position
  • RMB Right Mouse Button; there are several uses, a major one being to click RMB to select objects in Object Mode and the elements of objects in Edit mode. However, an accidental click on RMB while traversing it over the 3D viewport can inadvertently invoke the Gestures option (see the section of that name in the User Manual Chapter on Interaction in 3D) for initializing a manipulation. This may result in unwanted changes in objects or elements of objects in position, angle, or scale. The Gestures section describes the use of LMB to select a type of manipulation, but RMB can be used in exactly the same way, so can produce the same accidental effect. If this happens, cancel the manipulation by clicking RMB or use Ctrl-Z after clicking LMB.
  • Rotate

S

  • Save
  • Save As
  • Save Default Settings
  • Save Image
  • Save Runtime
  • Scale
  • Scanline is one row of pixels in the final render. Also the term for a method of rendering which Blender used to use before the raytracing add-ons. It is much faster than Raytracing, but allows fewer effects, such as reflections, refractions, motion blur and focal blur.
  • Scene
  • Screen
  • Screen Dump
  • Select
  • Sensor A LogicBrick that acts like a sense of a lifeform. It reacts to touch, vision, collision etc.
  • Sequence Window
  • Settings
  • Shading
  • Shadow: simulated lights don't normally cast shadows. And, they also pass through solid objects - so a light inside a closed box would actually illuminate things outside the box as if the box were transparent. The shading on objects is only calculated based on the angle of the surface.
  • Skin
  • Soft Body
  • Softimage
  • SPACE
  • Specular Light refers to the highlights on reflective objects, like diamonds, billiard balls, and eyes. Specular highlights often appear as bright spots on a surface, at a point where the light source hits it directly. Ambient, Diffuse, and Specular are called the three components of a light source. Each one is given a color, which, when added together, create the final color of a light. For most lights, the main overall color of the light is defined by the Diffuse color. Sunlight or lightbulbs would be white, while moonlight would be a darker blue, and a candle would be yellow. You can use the ambient color to adjust the overall color range of the light source; or, you can get a slight tint to shadows by making the diffuse component yellow and the ambient a slight blue. In many lights, the ambient color is left at black, meaning that it won't have any effect. Specular components are often left at white, but you can make them different colors to get interesting effects. Most of the time you can completely ignore the specular and diffuse settings on a light, but just be aware that the way you set the color is by specifically setting the diffuse color. The final color that an object appears to be is a combination of the light hitting it and the color of the surface.
  • Spline
  • Spotlight is a light with both location and direction. A spotlight sends out a cone of light defined by the spotlight angle, and illuminates only objects within that cone. Spotlights also have attenuation, as well as a parameter that controls whether the spot of light is sharply defined or has smooth edges. These 4 types of lights are listed in order of computational complexity; the more lights you have, the more work the computer has to do. Generally it's a good idea to use directional lights whenever possible, since they're the cheapest, and use pointlights and spotlights sparingly.
  • STL
  • Subdivision Surface (Subsurf) is the tool which subdivides your model at render-time, without affecting your mesh at design-time. There are two subsurf algorithms in blender to choose from - Simple Subdiv, which doesn't affect the shape of your mesh, and is used to add detail to displacement mapping or render-time radiosity, both of which operate on a per-vertex basis. The other is Catmull-Clark, a common subdivision algorithm which smooths out curves, and allows you to make complicated smooth surfaces (eg people, plants, etc) with very few faces. However this algorithm can sometimes (read: often) have strange results with meshes containing triangles or verticies with many edges ("poles"), unless it is correctly handled.
  • Sub Surface Scattering (SSS) is a mechanism of light transport in which light penetrates the surface of a translucent object, is scattered by interacting with the material, and exits the surface at a different point. All non-metallic materials are translucent to some degree. In particular, materials such as marble, skin, and milk are extremely difficult to simulate realistically without taking subsurface scattering into account.
  • Sun
  • Surface
  • Suzanne Award

T

  • TAB.
  • Text
  • Text Window
  • Texture
  • Theme
  • Timeline
  • Timer Menu
  • Toggle
  • Toolbox
  • Track
  • TrueSpace
  • Tube
  • Tuhoppu is an experimental version of Blender that is like a code playground, developers can put their new code in there to be tested and played with by users before it gets put into the official Blender. Tuhopuu is Finnish for "Tree of destruction".
  • Tutorial
  • Tweening is short for in-betweening, the process of generating intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image. Tweening is a key process in all types of animation, including computer animation. Sophisticated animation software enables one to identify specific objects in an image and define how they should move and change during the tweening process.

U

  • Undo
  • Unpack Data
  • User Defaults
  • UV Mapping (UV) is a type of texturing which uses faces as regions of the image.
  • UV Sphere

V

  • Verse is a network protocol that lets multiple applications act together as one large application by sharing data over a network. If one application makes a change to shared data, the change is distributed instantly to all the other interested clients.
  • Vertex
  • Vertex Group
  • VideoScape
  • View
  • VRML

W

  • Wavefront
  • Weekend Challenge (WC)
  • Weight
  • Widget Type
  • WikiBook
  • Window
  • Window Type
  • Window Manager
  • Wings3D
  • World
  • Work In Progress (WIP)

X

  • Xfig
  • XKEY. Blender have XKEY associated with: Delete (erase) and (X) Axis.

Object Mode HotKeys

  • XKEY. Erase Selected? Deletes selected objects.

EditMode HotKeys - Mesh

  • XKEY. Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following options:
  • Vertices: all vertices are deleted. This includes the edges and faces they form.
  • Edges: all edges with both vertices selected are deleted. If this `releases' certain vertices, they are deleted as well. Faces that can no longer exist as a result of this action are also deleted.
  • Faces: all faces with all their vertices selected are deleted. If any vertices are `released' as a result of this action, they are deleted.
  • All: everything is deleted.
  • Edges and Faces: all selected edges and faces are deleted, but the vertices remain.
  • Only Faces: all selected faces are deleted, but the edges and vertices remain.
  • Relative HotKeys associations: Undo (UKEY). Grab (translate) (GKEY), Rotate (RKEY), Scale (SKEY)

  • XML
  • X3D

Y

  • Yet Another Free Raytracer (YafRay) is an open source ray tracing program that uses an XML scene description language. It has been integrated into, and is often used to render scenes made in, the 3D modelling software Blender.
  • YKEY

Z

  • ZKEY

3

  • 3D Studio