From BlenderWiki

Jump to: navigation, search

Texture Map Input

Mode: All Modes

Panel: Shading/Material Context → Map Input

Hotkey: F5

Description

Textures need mapping coordinates, to determine how they are applied to geometry. The mapping specifies how the texture will ultimately wrap itself to the object. For example, a 2D image texture could be configured to wrap itself around a cylindrical shaped object.

Conceptual texture pipeline

(Conceptual texture pipeline) is what is happening if you could "see" each panel(s) associated with each texture or image at the same time. However, only one panel is visible at any one time. To change a texture's Map Input properties you must first select the texture on the Texture panel.

Input Source

Mode: All Modes

Panel: Shading/Material Context → Map Input

Hotkey: F5

Description

Mapping works by using a set of coordinates to guide the mapping process. These coordinates can come from anywhere, usually the object to which the texture is being applied to.

For UV or Object mapping, enter the name of the UV Texture or Object that you want to use as the orientation for the texture in the little blank field immediately to the right of the UV and Object buttons. The default name for a UV Texture is "UV Tex"; the exact name is found in the Materials panels where the UV Textures are listed. You can only specify one UV Texture for each mapped Texture image. If you want to layer UV Textures, you have to use multiple channels. See UV Unwrapping for more information on using UV Textures.

Options

Map Input Panel
UV
UV mapping is a very precise way of mapping a 2D texture to a 3D surface. Each vertex of a mesh has its own UV co-ordinates which can be unwrapped and laid flat like a skin. You can almost think of UV coordinates as a mapping that works on a 2D plane with its own local coordinate system to the plane on which it is operating on. This mapping is especially useful when using 2D images as textures, as seen in UV Mapping. You can use multiple textures with one set of UV Co-ordinates.
Some Modifiers Prevent UV Mapping
In fact, all modifiers affecting the mesh’s topology (i.e. existing vertices, edges or faces) will prevent UV mapping, unless they are designed to handle this problem (for example, the Subsurf modifier manages nicely the UV maps, subdividing them as well…). Others, like the Decimate modifier, affect the number of vertices, without knowing how to update accordingly the UV maps – and thus completely prevent using UV mapping while they are in the modifiers stack.


To use an UV map to guide the texture placement, click UV and enter the name of the UV Texture in the input field. The name must match exactly and is case-sensitive. If the name does not match one of the existing UV Textures, the field will be red.
Then, for the Color of the texture, map the image texture to Col (if the image is the color/diffuse image). Map to Nor if the image is the bump map, etc. See Bump and Normal mapping for more info on those special kinds of images. See the next page for more info on Map To panel.
Object
Uses a child Object's texture space as source of coordinates. The Object name must be specified in the text button on the right. Often used with Empty objects, this is an easy way to place a small image as a logo or decal at a given point on the object (see the example below). This object can also be animated, to move a texture around or through a surface
Glob - Global
The scene's Global 3D coordinates. This is also usefull for animations; if you move the object, the texture moves across it. It can be useful for letting objects appear or disappear at a certain position in space.
Orco - Original Coordinates
"Original Co-ordinates" - The object's local texture space. This is the default option for mapping textures.
Stick
Uses a mesh's sticky coordinates, which are a form of per-vertex UV co-ordinates. If you have made Sticky co-ordinates first (F9 Mesh Panel, Sticky Button), the texture can be rendered in camera view (so called "Camera Mapping").
Win - Window
The rendered image window coordinates. This is well suited to blending two objects.
Nor - Normal
Uses the direction of the surface's normal vector as coordinates. This is very useful when creating certain special effects that depend on viewing angle
Refl - Reflection
Uses the direction of the reflection vector as coordinates. This is useful for adding reflection maps - you will need this input when Environment Mapping.

Hints

When choosing a mapping style consider the following questions:

  • What is the source of the input Coordinates?
  • Where is the top left corner?
  • Where does the Texture begin?
  • How large is the Texture and how often does it have to be repeated?
  • Do we have multiple points to begin the texture, like at a cube?
  • Will the Texture be rotated?

Mapping an image to the Window coordinates will cause the image to be tiled across the surface, without stretching, facing the camera without regard to the object's geometry.

Global coordinates, when mapped to Cube, tile the virtual space with the image. Wherever the object happens to be, it gets the texture that exists in that space.

Textures scale along with the object. If you scale an object larger, the image or procedural texture is scaled up as well. To make more patterns of the texture repeat across the surface, either increase the image repeat value (if an image) or increase the SizeXYZ values in the Map Input panel. This can be a pain if you have a texture such as a brick, and you make the wall longer; the bricks will stretch out. You can either use a procedural plug-in texture that figures out the repeats for you, or get out the calculator and divide the "true" texture size by the actual wall size to determine how many repeats there should be.

Use multiple texture channels of the same texture, each Sized differently, to create the natural patterns found in nature (principle of the fractals).

To make them completely independent from the object's scale, either use Global mapping or Object, referencing an empty at the object's center with a scale of 1 (preferably parented to the object if you are animating it.).

2D to 3D Mapping

Mode: All Modes

Panel: Shading/Material Context → Map Input

Hotkey: F5

Description

The Image texture is the only true 2D texture, and is the most frequently used and most advanced of Blender's textures. Because images are two-dimensional, the way in which the 2D texture coordinate is translated to 3D must be specified in the mapping buttons.

Options

Depending on the overall shape of the object, one of these types may be more useful than others.

If the UV button (see #Input_Source; Others also?) is enabled you can imagine all these buttons except for the Flat button to be disabled.

Flat Mapping.
Flat
Flat mapping gives the best results on single planar faces. It does produce interesting effects on the sphere, but compared to a sphere-mapped sphere the result looks flat. On faces that are not in the mapping plane the last pixel of the texture is extended, which produces stripes on the cube and cylinder.


Cube Mapping.
Cube
Cube mapping often gives the most useful results when the objects are not too curvy and organic (notice the seams on the sphere).


Tube Mapping.
Tube
Tube mapping maps the texture around an object like a label on a bottle. The texture is therefore more stretched on the cylinder. This mapping is of course very good for making the label on a bottle or assigning stickers to rounded objects. However, this is not a cylindrical mapping so the ends of the cylinder are undefined.


Sphere Mapping.
Sphere
Sphere mapping is the best type for mapping a sphere, and it is perfect for making planets and similar objects. It is often very useful for creating organic objects. It also produces interesting effects on a cylinder.


Coordinate Offset, Scaling and Transformation

Mode: All Modes

Panel: Shading/Material Context → Map Input

Hotkey: F5

Description

For extra control, the texture space can also be tweaked, to move, scale and flip the apparent texture on its axes

Options

Map Input panel.
ofsX, ofsY, ofsZ – Offset
The texture co-ordinates can be translated by an offset. Enlarging of the Ofs moves the texture towards the top left.
sizeX, sizeY, sizeZ – Size
The scale of the texture space. Enlarging the texture space will make the apparent texture scale smaller. The texture is as often repeated (if set up as repeating) as sized here. You can also use these settings to stretch the texture, by entering different values in each numeric fields. And finally, you can mirror a texture, by setting a negative value as scale of the axis along which you want to mirror.
[ ], X, Y, Z (x3) – Axes
These buttons allow you to change the mapping of axes between the texture’s own coordinate system, and the mapping system you choose (Orco, UV, etc.).
More precisely, to each axis of the texture (from top to bottom, X, Y and Z) corresponds one row of four buttons, that allow you to select to which axis in the mapping system it maps – the first void button mapping to nothing! This implies several points:
  • For 2D textures (images…), only the first two rows are relevant, as they have no Z data!
  • You can rotate a quarter turn a 2D picture by setting the first row (i.e. X texture axis) to Y, and the second row (Y texture axis) to X.
  • When you map no texture axis (i.e. the three “void” buttons are set), you’ll get a solid uniform texture, as you use zero dimension (i.e. a dot, or pixel) of it (and then Blender extends or repeats this point’s color along all axes!).
  • When you only map one texture axis (i.e. two “void” buttons are enabled), you’ll get a “striped” texture, as you only use one dimension (i.e. a line of pixel) of it, and then Blender stretches this line along the two other axes…
  • The same goes, for 3D textures (i.e. procedural ones), when one axis is mapped to nothing, Blender extends the plan (“slice”) along the relevant third axis…
So, all this is a bit hard to understand and master. Fortunately, you do not have to change these settings often, except for some special effects… Anyway, the only way to get used to them is to practice!


3D View texture space transform

Mode: Object Mode

Hotkey: T

Description

The texture space can also be transformed interactively in the 3D View, just like moving or scaling an object. This determines the area that the texture uses to define its co-ordinates.

Options

Texture Space popup menu
Press T while an object is selected to get the Texture Space popup menu. The following options are available:
Grab/Move
Moves the objects' texture space
Scale
Scales the object's texture space
Scaled Texture Space box.
Reset Texture Space
This manual editing overrides the automatic calculation of texture space based on the object's local co-ordinates and size. To return to automatic texture space calculation, enable the AutoTexSpace button in the Link and Materials Panel in the Editing context (F9)


Examples

Position a Decal on a Mesh

Manual-Texture-MapInput.png
Another common use of Map Input, briefly mentioned above, is placing a decal somewhere on a mesh:
  • Insert an Empty into your scene, positioned close to the surface of your mesh where you want the center of the decal to be, and oriented with its X-Y axis as you want your decal to appear (the Z axis should point away from the mesh, i.e. normal to the mesh).
  • Assign an image texture to the mesh, loading the decal image, and set UseAlpha and ClipCube in the Map Image panel.
  • In the Map Input field, select Object and in the blank field to the right of the button, enter the name of the Empty, which by default is "Empty"

In the example to the right, an Empty named "Decal" is just above the surface of the red ball, with the Z pointing away from the ball. In the material settings for the ball, an image of an arrow is mapped to the location and XY orientation of the empty.

You may Scale the empty to make the decal larger or smaller, and/or use the Size sliders in the Map Input panel. You can tweak the position of the decal by moving the empty or using the Offset sliders.



Introduction
What is Blender?
Introduction
Blender’s History
License
Blender’s Community
About this Manual
What's changed with Blender 2.4
Installing Blender
Introduction
Python
Installing on Windows
Installing on GNU/Linux
Installing on Mac
Installing on other Operating Systems
Configuring Blender
Directory Layout
Starting
The Interface
Introduction
Keyboard and Mouse
Window System
Arranging frames
Headers
Console window
Window Types
Screens (Workspace Layouts)
Scenes
Configuration
Modes
Contexts
Menus
Panels
Buttons and Controls
Internationalization
Your First Animation
1/2: A static Gingerbread Man
2/2: Animating the Gingerbread Man
The Vital Functions
Quick render
Undo and Redo
Default scene
Screenshots
Help!
Setting Preferences
Configuring Preferences
Interface
Editing
Themes
File
System
Interaction in 3D
Introduction
Introduction
Navigation
Introduction
3D View
3D View Options
3D View Usage
Camera View
Layers
Local or Global View
Sketch in 3D Space
Introduction to Grease Pencil
Drawing sketches
Layers and Animation
Converting sketches to geometry
Transformations
Introduction
Basics
- Grab/Move
- Rotate
- Scale
- Gestures
Advanced
- Mirror
- To Sphere
- Shear
- Warp
- Push/Pull
Transform Control
Introduction
Precision of Transformations
Numeric Transformations
Transform Properties
Reset Object Transforms
Manipulators
Transform Orientations
Axis Locking
Pivot Point
- Active object
- Individual Centers
- 3D Cursor
- Median Point
- Bounding Box Center
Snapping
Snap to Mesh
Proportional Edit
Data System and Files
Blender's Data System
Blender's Library and Data System
Blender's Datablocks
Scenes
Working with Scenes
The Outliner Window
Appending and Linking
File operations
Introduction
Opening blender files
Saving blender files
Modeling
Introduction
Introduction
Objects
Objects
Selecting Objects
Editing Objects
Groups and Parenting
Tracking
Duplication
- DupliVerts
- DupliFaces
- DupliGroup
- DupliFrames
Mesh Objects
Meshes
- Mesh Structures
- Mesh Primitives
Selecting
- Selectable Elements
- Selection Basics
- Advanced Selecting
- Selecting Edges
- Selecting Faces
Editing
Basic Editing
- Translation, Rotation, Scale
- Adding Elements
- Deleting Elements
- Creating Faces and Edges
- Mirror editing
Vertex Editing
Edge Editing
Face Editing
Deforming Tools
- Mirror
- Shrink/Fatten Along Normals
- Smooth
- Noise
Duplicating Tools
- Duplicate
- Extrude
- Extrude Dup
- Spin
- Spin Dup
- Screw
Subdividing Tools
- Subdivide
- Subdivide fractal
- Subdivide smooth
- Loop Subdivide
- Knife Subdivide
- Bevel
Miscellaneous Tools
Retopo Tool
Sculpt Mode
Multi Resolution Mesh
Vertex Groups
Weight Paint
Mesh Smoothing
Curve Objects
Curves
Selecting
Editing
Advanced Editing
Surface Objects
Surfaces
Selecting
Editing
Text Objects
Texts
Editing
Meta Objects
Metas
Editing
Empty Objects
Empties
Group Objects
Groups
Scripts
Modeling Scripts
Modifiers and Deformation
Introduction
Introduction
Modifiers Stack
Modify
UVProject
Generate
Array
Bevel
Booleans
Build
Decimate
EdgeSplit
Mask
Mirror
Subsurf
Deform
Armature
Cast
Curve
Displace
Hooks
Lattice
MeshDeform
Shrinkwrap
SimpleDeform
Smooth
Wave
Simulate
Cloth
Collision
Explode
Fluid
Particle Instance
Particle System
Soft Body
Lighting
Introduction
Introduction
Lights
Introduction
Light Properties
Light Attenuation
Light Textures
What Light Affects
Lights In Other Contexts
Shadows
Introduction
Shadow Properties
Raytraced Shadow Properties
Volumetric Lights
Introduction
Lamps
Introduction
Lamp Light
- Raytraced Shadows
Spot Light
- Raytraced Shadows
- Buffered Shadows
- Halos
Area Light
- Raytraced Shadows
Hemi Light
Sun Light
- Raytraced Shadows
- Sky & Atmosphere
Lighting Rigs
Radiosity
Introduction
Rendering
Baking
Scene Light
Ambient Light
Ambient Occlusion
Exposure
Exposure
Materials
Introduction
Introduction to Shading
Materials Introduction
Usage
Assigning a material
Material Preview
Material Options
Multiple Materials
Properties
Diffuse Shaders
Specular Shaders
Ambient Light Effect
Color Ramps
Raytraced Reflections
Raytraced Transparency
Subsurface Scattering (SSS)
Strands
Node Materials
Material Nodes
Nodes Editor
Node Controls
Nodes usage
Nodes Groups
Material Node Types
- Input Nodes
- Output
- Color
- Vector
- Convertor
- Dynamic
Vertex Paint
Using Vertex Paint
Halos
Halos
Textures
Introduction
Introduction
UV/Image Editor
Common Options
Texture Stack
Texture Types
Texture Types
Procedural Textures
Image Textures
Video Textures
Texture Nodes
- Nodes Editor
- Node Controls
- Nodes usage
- Nodes Groups
-- Textures Input Nodes
-- Textures Output Nodes
-- Textures Color Nodes
-- Textures Patterns Nodes
-- Textures Textures Nodes
-- Textures Convertor Nodes
-- Textures Distort Nodes
Texture Plugins
Texture Painting
Painting the Texture
- Projection Paint
Mapping
Mapping
Environment Maps
UV Unwrapping Explained
- Unwrapping a Mesh
- Managing the UV Layout
- Editing the UV Layout
- Applying an Image
Influence
Influence
- Material
-- Bump and Normal
-- Displacement
- Particles
- World
World and Ambient Effects
World
Introduction
World Background
Ambient Effects
Mist
Stars
Rigging
Introduction
Introduction to Rigging
Armatures
Armature Objects
Panels overview
Bones
Visualization
Structure
Selecting
Editing
- Bones
- Properties
- Sketching
- Templating
Skinning
Introduction
Linking Objects to Bones
Skinning to Objects’ Shapes
Retargeting
Posing
Introduction
Visualization
Editing Poses
Pose Library
Using Constraints
Inverse Kinematics
Constraints
Introduction
Introduction
Constraints Common Interface
Constraints’ Stack
Transform Constraints
Copy Location
Copy Rotation
Copy Scale
Limit Distance
Limit Location
Limit Rotation
Limit Scale
Transformation
Tracking Constraints
Clamp To
IK Solver
Locked Track
Stretch To
Track To
Relationship Constraints
Action
Child Of
Floor
Follow Path
Null
Rigid Body Joint
Script
Shrinkwrap
Animation
Introduction
Introduction
The Timeline
Markers
3D Views
Animation Editors
Animation Editors
Ipo Editor
Ipo Curves and Keyframes
Ipo Datablocks
Ipo Types
Ipo Editor Interface
Editing
- Ipo Curves
- Keyframes
Ipo Drivers
Action Editor
Editing Action Channels
NLA Editor
Editing NLA Strips
Strip Modifiers
Animation Techniques
Introduction
Animating Objects
- Using Constraints
- Moving Objects on a Path
Animating Shapes
- Shape Keys
- Editing Shape Keys
- Animating Shape Keys
- Shape Keys Examples
Indirect Shape Animation
Animating Armatures
- Stride
Animating Lamps
Animating Cameras
Animating Materials
Animating Textures
Animating World
Physical Simulation
Introduction
Introduction
Dynamics
Force Fields
Collisions
Particles
Particles
Types
Physics
- Newtonian
- Keyed
- Boids
Visualization
Controlling Emission, Interaction and Time
Cache & Bake
Hair
Children
Vertex Groups
Particle Mode
Soft Body
Introduction
Exterior Forces
Interior Forces
Collisions
Simple Examples
Combination with Armatures
Combination with Hair Particles
Reference
Cloth
Introduction
Fluids
Fluid
Using the Game Engine
Using the Game Engine
Rendering
Introduction
Introduction
Camera
The Camera
Perspective (Vanishing points)
Depth Of Field
Render
Displaying Renders
Basic Options
Antialiasing (Oversampling)
Rendering Animations
Panoramic
Render Baking
Using the Command Line
Output
Output
Video Output
Effects and Post Processing
Introduction
Render Layers
Render Passes
Edges & Toon
Stamp
Color Management & Exposure
Depth Of Field
Motion Blur
Render Performance
Rendering Performance
Distributed Rendering
External Render Engines
Introduction
YafRay
Compositing with nodes
Composite Nodes
Introduction
Nodes Editor
Node Controls
Nodes usage
Nodes Groups
Composite Node types
Composite Node types
Input Nodes
Output Nodes
Color Nodes
Vector Nodes
Filter Nodes
Convertor Nodes
Matte Nodes
Distortion Nodes
Editing Sequences
Introduction
Introduction
The sequencer
Usage
Sequencer Modes
Sequence Screen Layout
Effects
Built-in Effects
Plugin Effects
Audio
Audio Sequences
Extending Blender
Introduction
Introduction
Python Scripting
Python Scripting in Blender
Setting up Python
The Text Editor
A working example
References
Python Scripts
Script Catalog
Bundled Scripts
Plugins
Blender's Plugins System
Texture plugins specifications
Sequence plugins specifications
Game Engine
Introduction
Introduction
The Logic Editor
Usage
Game Properties
Sensors
Introduction
Sensor Types
Controllers
Introduction
Expressions
Actuators
Introduction
Action
Camera
CD
Constraint
Edit Object
Ipo
2D Filters
Game
Message
Motion
Parent
Property
Random
Scene
Shape Action
Sound
State
Visibility
Cameras
Cameras
Dome Camera
Physics
Physics Engine
Material Physics
Object Types
- Static
- No Collision
- Dynamic
- Rigid Body
- Soft Body
- Occluder
- Sensor
Python API
Bullet physics
VideoTexture
Various resources
List of Features
External resources
Game Engine Basics (BSoD Tutorial)
FAQ